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1. Al-Fatihah (1) 2. Al-Baqarah (2) 3. Al-Baqarah (2) 4.         " 5.         " 6.         " 7.         " 8.         " 9.         " 10.         " 11.         " 12.         " 13.         " 14.         " 15.         " 16.         " 17.         " 18.         " 19.         " 20.         " 21.         " 22.         " 23.         " 24.         " 25.         " 26.         " 27.         " 28.         " 29.         " 30.         " 31.         " 32.         " 33.         " 34.         " 35.         " 36.         " 37.         " 38.         " 39.         " 40.         " 41.         " 42.         " 43.         " 44.         " 45.         " 46.         " 47.         " 48.         " 49.         " 50. Ali Imran (3)

 

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51. Ali Imran (3) 52. Ali Imran (3) 53.         " 54.         " 55.         " 56.         " 57.         " 58.         " 59.         " 60.         " 61.         " 62.         " 63.         " 64.         " 65.         " 66.         " 67.         " 68.         " 69.         " 70.         " 71.         " 72.         " 73.         " 74.         " 75.         " 76.         " 77. An-Nisa' (4) 78. An-Nisa' (4) 79.         " 80.         " 81.         " 82.         " 83.         " 84.         " 85.         " 86.         " 87.         " 88.         " 89.         " 90.         " 91.         " 92.         " 93.         " 94.         " 95.         " 96.         " 97.         " 98.         " 99.         " 100.         "

 

×

101. An-Nisaa' 102. An-Nisaa' 103.         " 104.         " 105.         " 106. Al-Maa'idah (5) 107. Al-Maa'idah 108.         " 109.         " 110.         " 111.         " 112.         " 113.         " 114.         " 115.         " 116.         " 117.         " 118.         " 119.         " 120.         " 121.         " 122.         " 123.         " 124.         " 125.         " 126.         " 127.         " 128. Al-An'aam (6) 129. Al-An'aam 130.         " 131.         " 132.         " 133.         " 134.         " 135.         " 136.         " 137.         " 138.         " 139.         " 140.         " 141.         " 142.         " 143.         " 144.         " 145.         " 146.         " 147.         " 148.         " 149.         " 150.         "

 

×

151. Al-A'raaf (7) 152. Surah Al-A'raaf 153.         " 154.         " 155.         " 156.         " 157.         " 158.         " 159.         " 160.         " 161.         " 162.         " 163.         " 164.         " 165.         " 166.         " 167.         " 168.         " 169.         " 170.         " 171.         " 172.         " 173.         " 174.         " 175.         " 176.         " 177. Al-Anfaal (8) 178. Surah Al-Anfaal 179.         " 180.         " 181.         " 182.         " 183.         " 184.         " 185.         " 186.         " 187. At-Taubah (9) 188. Surah At-Taubah 189.         " 190.         " 191.         " 192.         " 193.         " 194.         " 195.         " 196.         " 197.         " 198.         " 199.         " 200.         "

 

×

201. At-Taubah 202. At-Taubah 203.         " 204.         " 205.         " 206.         " 207.         " 208. Yunus (10) 209. Yunus 210.         " 211.         " 212.         " 213.         " 214.         " 215.         " 216.         " 217.         " 218.         " 219.         " 220.         " 221. Hud (11) 222. Hud 223.         " 224.         " 225.         " 226.         " 227.         " 228.         " 229.         " 230.         " 231.         " 232.         " 233.         " 234.         " 235. Yusuf (12) 236. Yusuf 237.         " 238.         " 239.         " 240.         " 241.         " 242.         " 243.         " 244.         " 245.         " 246.         " 247.         " 248.         " 249. Ar-Ra'd (13) 250. Ar-Ra'd

 

×

251. Ar-Ra'd 252. Ar-Ra'd 253.         " 254.         " 255. Ibrahim (14) 256. Ibrahim 257.         " 258.         " 259.         " 260.         " 261.         " 262. Al-Hijr (15) 263. Al-Hijr 264.         " 265.         " 266.         " 267. Al-Nahl (16) 268. Al-Nahl 269.         " 270.         " 271.         " 272.         " 273.         " 274.         " 275.         " 276.         " 277.         " 278.         " 279.         " 280.         " 281.         " 282. Al-Israa' (17) 283. Al-Israa' 284.         " 285.         " 286.         " 287.         " 288.         " 289.         " 290.         " 291.         " 292.         " 293. Al-Kahfi (18) 294. Al-Kahfi 295.         " 296.         " 297.         " 298.         " 299.         " 300.         "

 

×

301. Al-Kahfi 302. Al-Kahfi 303.         " 304.         " 305. Maryam (19) 306. Maryam 307.         " 308.         " 309.         " 310.         " 311.         " 312. Taha (20) 313. Taha 314.         " 315.         " 316.         " 317.         " 318.         " 319.         " 320.         " 321.         " 322. Al-Anbiyaa' (21) 323. Al-Anbiyaa' 324.         " 325.         " 326.         " 327.         " 328.         " 329.         " 330.         " 331.         " 332. Al-Hajj (22) 333. Al-Hajj 334.         " 335.         " 336.         " 337.         " 338.         " 339.         " 340.         " 341.         " 342. Al-Mu'minuun (23) 343. Al-Mu'minuun 344.         " 345.         " 346.         " 347.         " 348.         " 349.         " 350. An-Nuur (24)

 

×

351. An-Nuur (24) 352. An-Nuur (24) 353.         " 354.         " 355.         " 356.         " 357.         " 358.         " 359. Al-Furqaan (25) 360. Al-Furqaan (25) 361.         " 362.         " 363.         " 364.         " 365.         " 366.         " 367. Asy-Syu'araa' (26) 368. Asy-Syu'araa' 369.         " 370.         " 371.         " 372.         " 373.         " 374.         " 375.         " 376.         " 377. An-Naml (27) 378. An-Naml 379.         " 380.         " 381.         " 382.         " 383.         " 384.         " 385. Al-Qasas (28) 386. Al-Qasas 387.         " 388.         " 389.         " 390.         " 391.         " 392.         " 393.         " 394.         " 395.         " 396. Al-'Ankabuut (29) 397. Al-'Ankabuut 398.         " 399.         " 400.         "

 

×

401. Al-'Ankabut 402. Al-'Ankabut 403.         " 404. Ar-Rum (30) 405. Ar-Rum 406.         " 407.         " 408.         " 409.         " 410.         " 411. Luqman (31) 412. Luqman 413.         " 414.         " 415. As-Sajdah (32) 416. As-Sajdah 417.         " 418. Al-Ahzab (33) 419. Al-Ahzab 420.         " 421.         " 422.         " 423.         " 424.         " 425.         " 426.         " 427.         " 428. Saba' (34) 429. Saba' 430.         " 431.         " 432.         " 433.         " 434. Faatir (35) 435. Faatir 436.         " 437.         " 438.         " 439.         " 440. Ya Siin (36) 441. Ya Siin 442.         " 443.         " 444.         " 445.         " 446. As-Saaffaat (37) 447. As-Saaffaat 448.         " 449.         " 450.         "

 

×

451. As-Saaffaat 452. As-Saaffaat 453. Saad (38) 454. Saad 455.         " 456.         " 457.         " 458. Az-Zumar (39) 459. Az-Zumar 460.         " 461.         " 462.         " 463.         " 464.         " 465.         " 466.         " 467. Ghaafir (40) 468. Ghaafir 469.         " 470.         " 471.         " 472.         " 473.         " 474.         " 475.         " 476.         " 477. Fussilat (41) 478. Fussilat 479.         " 480.         " 481.         " 482.         " 483. Asy-Syuura (42) 484. Asy-Syuura 485.         " 486.         " 487.         " 488.         " 489. Az-Zukhruf (43) 490. Az-Zukhruf 491.         " 492.         " 493.         " 494.         " 495.         " 496. Ad-Dukhaan (44) 497. Ad-Dukhaan 498.         " 499. Al-Jaathiyah (45) 500. Al-Jaathiyah

 

×

501. Al-Jaathiyah 502. Al-Ahqaaf (46) 503. Al-Ahqaaf 504.         " 505.         " 506.         " 507. Muhammad (47) 508. Muhammad 509.         " 510.         " 511. Al-Fat-h (48) 512. Al-Fat-h 513.         " 514.         " 515. Al-Hujuraat (49) 516. Al-Hujuraat 517.         " 518. Qaaf (50) 519. Qaaf 520. Adz-Dzaariyaat (51) 521. Adz-Dzaariyaat 522.         " 523. At-Tuur (52) 524. At-Tuur 525.         " 526. An-Najm (53) 527. An-Najm 528. Al-Qamar (54) 529. Al-Qamar 530.         " 531. Ar-Rahmaan (55) 532. Ar-Rahmaan 533.         " 534. Al-Waaqi'ah (56) 535. Al-Waaqi'ah 536.         " 537. Al-Hadiid (57) 538. Al-Hadiid 539.         " 540.         " 541.         " 542. Al-Mujaadalah (58) 543. Al-Mujaadalah 544.         " 545. Al-Hasy-r (59) 546. Al-Hasy-r 547.         " 548.         " 549. Al-Mumtahanah (60) 550. Al-Mumtahanah

 

×

551. As-Soff (61) 552. As-Soff 553. Al-Jumu'ah (62) 554. Al-Munafiqun (63) 555. Al-Munafiqun (63) 556. At-Taghobun (64) 557. At-Taghobun (64) 558. At-Tolaaq (65) 559. At-Tolaaq (65) 560. At-Tahrim (66) 561. At-Tahrim (66) 562. Al-Mulk (67) 563. Al-Mulk (67) 564. Al-Qolam (68) 565. Al-Qolam (68) 566. Al-Haaqqah (69) 567. Al-Haaqqah (69) 568. Al-Ma'arij (70) 569. Al-Ma'arij (70) 570. Nuh (71) 571. Nuh (71) 572. Al-Jinn (72) 573. Al-Jinn (72) 574. Al-Muzzammil (73) 575. Al-Muddassir (74) 576. Al-Muddassir (74) 577. Al-Qiyamah (75) 578. Al-Insaan (76) 579. Al-Insaan (76) 580. Al-Mursalat (77) 581. Al-Mursalat 582. An-Naba' (78) 583. An-Nazi'aat (79) 584. An-Nazi'aat 585. 'Abasa (80) 586. At-Takwir (81) 587. Al-Infithor (82) 588. Al-Muthoffifin 589. Al-Insyiqaq (84) 590. Al-Buruj (85) 591. At-Thoriq (86) 592. Al-Ghosyiah (88) 593. Al-Fajr (89) 594. Al-Balad (90) 595. Asy-Syams (91) 596. Ad-Dhuha (93) 597. At-Tin (95) 598. Al-Qadr (97) 599. Az-Zalzalah (99) 600. Al-Qori'ah (101) 601. Al-'Asr (103) 602. Quraisy (106) 603. Al-Kafirun (109) 604. Al-Ikhlas (112)

 

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7 - Surah Al-A'raaf

DAILY MOTIVATION   more   

OTHER CONTENT  :  
 

        

               

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 MOSQUE NEWS 

Edited on 5 April  2018

News 1   :   2    :    3

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1. TAJWEED : TARANNUM

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2.TRANSLATIONS : COMMENTARIES

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A....ARABIC

Tafsir Muyassar   تفسير المیسر

B....ENGLISH

Saheeh International

C.....MALAY

Basmeih

D.....CHINESE

Ma Jian

E......ARABIC : ENGLISH : MALAY : CHINESE

Tafsir Muyassar  تفسير المیسر : Saheeh International : Basmeih : Ma Jian

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A....ARABIC

Tafsir Muyassar   تفسير المیسر

 

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B....ENGLISH

Saheeh International

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C.....MALAY

Basmeih

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D.....CHINESE

Ma Jian

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E......ARABIC : ENGLISH : MALAY : CHINESE

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3. LEARN ARABIC : OTHER LANGUAGES


 

فعل

مجهول

مضارع

فعل

مجهول

ماض

فعل

معلوم

مضارع

فعل

معلوم

ماض

 

يُفْعَلُ

فُعِلَ

يَفْعَلُ

فَعَلَ

 I

يُفَعَّلُ

فُعِّلَ

يَفَعِّلُ

فَعَّلَ

II

يُفَاعَلُ

فُوْعِلَ

يُفَاعِلُ

فَاعَلَ

III

يُفْعَلُ

أُفْعِلَ

يُفْعِلُ

أَفْعَلَ

IV

يُتَفَعَّلُ

تُفُعِّلَ

يَتَفَعَّلُ

تَفَعَّلَ

V

يُتَفَاعَلُ

تُفُوعِلَ

يَتَفَاعَلُ

تَفَاعَلَ

VI

يُنْفَعَلُ

أُنْفُعِلَ

يَنْفَعِلُ

إِنْفَعَلَ

VII

يُفْتَعَلُ

أُفْتُعِلَ

يُفْتَعِلُ

إِفْتَعَلَ

VIII

يُفَعَّلُ

أُفْعِلَّ

يَفْعَلُّ

إِفْعَلَّ

IX

يُسْتَفْعَلُ

أُسْتُفْعِلَ

يَسْتَفْعِلُ

إِسْتَفْعَلَ

X

 

مصدر

فعل

النهي

فعل

الأمر

 

فَعْلٌ

لاَتَفْعَلْ

إِِفْعَلْ

 I

تَفْعِيْلٌ

لاَتُفَعِّلْ

فَعِّلْ

II

مُفَاعَلَةٌ

لاَتُفَاعِلْ

فَاعِلْ

III

إِفْعَالٌ

لاَتُفْعِلْ

أَفْعِلْ

IV

تَفَعُّلٌ

لاَتَتَفَعَّلْ

تَفَعَّلْ

V

تَفَاعُلٌ

لاَتَتَفَاعَلْ

تَفَاعَلْ

VI

إِنْفِعَالٌ

لاَتَنْفَعِلْ

إِنْفَعِلْ

VII

إِفْتِعَالٌ

لاَتَفْتَعِلْ

إِفْتَعِلْ

VIII

إِفْعِلاَلٌ

 

 

IX

إِسْتِفْعَالٌ

لاَتَسْتَفْعِلْ

إِسْتَفْعِلْ

X

 

إسم

الألة

إسم

المكن

الزمان

إسم

المفعول

إسم

الفاعل

 

مِفْعَلٌ

مَفْعَلٌ

مَفْعُولٌ

فَاعِلٌ

I

 

مُفَعَّلٌ

مُفَعَّلٌ

مُفَعِّلٌ

II

 

مُفَاعَلٌ

مُفَاعَلٌ

مُفَاعِلٌ

III

 

مُفَعَلٌ

مُفْعَلٌ

مُفْعِلٌ

IV

 

مُتَفَعَّلٌ

مُتَفَعَّلٌ

مُتَفَعِّلٌ

V

 

مُتَفَاعَلٌ

مُتَفَاعَلٌ

مُتَفَاعِلٌ

VI

 

مُنْفَعَلٌ

مُنْفَعَلٌ

مُنْفَعِلٌ

VII

 

مُفْتَعَلٌ

مُفْتَعَلٌ

مُفْتَعِلٌ

VIII

 

مُفْعَلٌ

مُفْعَلٌ

مُفْعِلٌ

IX

 

مُسْتَفْعَلٌ

مُسْتَفْعَلٌ

مُسْتَفْعِلٌ

X

 

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4. ANSWERING CRITIQUES ON ISLAM

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5.DAKWAH BIL HIKMAH

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6. PEOPLE REVERTING TO ISLAM

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7. QURANIC MIRACLES & OTHERS

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8. QUIZZES : GAMES

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سورة الأعراف ٧ الجزء ٩

١٦٦

ﭑﭒﭓﭔﭕﭖﭗﭘﭙﭚ
ﭛﭜﭝﭞﭟﭠﭡﭢﭣﭤﭥ
ﭦﭧﭨﭩﭪﭫﭬﭭﭮﭯ
ﭰﭱﭲﭳﭴﭵﭶﭷﭸ
ﭹﭺﭻﭼﭽﭾﭿ
ﮀﮁﮂﮃﮄﮅﮆﮇ
ﮈﮉﮊﮋﮌﮍﮎﮏﮐﮑﮒ
ﮓﮔﮕﮖﮗﮘﮙﮚ
ﮛﮜﮝﮞﮟﮠﮡﮢ
ﮣﮤﮥﮦﮧﮨﮩﮪﮫ
ﮬﮭﮮﮯﮰﮱﯓﯔﯕ
ﯖﯗﯘﯙﯚﯛ
ﯜﯝﯞﯟﯠﯡﯢﯣﯤ
ﯥﯦﯧﯨﯩﯪﯫﯬﯭﯮ
ﯯﯰﯱﯲﯳﯴﯵ

166

الجزء ٩سورة الأعراف ٧

١٦٥

ﭑﭒﭓﭔﭕﭖﭗﭘﭙﭚ
ﭛﭜﭝﭞﭟﭠﭡﭢﭣﭤﭥﭦ
ﭧﭨﭩﭪﭫﭬﭭﭮﭯﭰ
ﭱﭲﭳﭴﭵﭶﭷﭸ
ﭹﭺﭻﭼﭽﭾﭿﮀﮁﮂﮃﮄ
ﮅﮆﮇﮈﮉﮊﮋﮌﮍﮎﮏ
ﮐﮑﮒﮓﮔﮕﮖﮗﮘﮙ
ﮚﮛﮜﮝﮞﮟﮠﮡﮢ
ﮣﮤﮥﮦﮧﮨﮩﮪ
ﮫﮬﮭﮮﮯﮰﮱﯓﯔ
ﯕﯖﯗﯘﯙﯚﯛﯜﯝ
ﯞﯟﯠﯡﯢﯣﯤﯥﯦﯧﯨﯩ
ﯪﯫﯬﯭﯮﯯ
ﯰﯱﯲﯳﯴﯵﯶﯷ
ﯸﯹﯺﯻﯼﯽﯾ

165

165

7 - Surah Al-A'raaf

DAILY MOTIVATION   more   

OTHER CONTENT  :  
 

        

               

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 MOSQUE NEWS 

Edited on 5 April  2018

News 1   :   2    :    3

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1. TAJWEED : TARANNUM

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2.TRANSLATIONS : COMMENTARIES

A....ARABIC

Tafsir Muyassar   تفسير المیسر

B....ENGLISH

Saheeh International

C.....MALAY

Basmeih

D.....CHINESE

Ma Jian

E......ARABIC : ENGLISH : MALAY : CHINESE

Tafsir Muyassar  تفسير المیسر : Saheeh International : Basmeih : Ma Jian

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A.....ARABIC

Tafsir Muyassar :  تفسير المیسر

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B....ENGLISH

Saheeh International

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C.....MALAY

Basmeih

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D.....CHINESE

Ma Jian

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E......ARABIC : ENGLISH : MALAY : CHINESE

Tafsir Muyassar  تفسير المیسر : Saheeh International : Basmeih : Ma Jian

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3. LEARN ARABIC : OTHER LANGUAGES

 

فعل

مجهول

مضارع

فعل

مجهول

ماض

فعل

معلوم

مضارع

فعل

معلوم

ماض

 

يُفْعَلُ

فُعِلَ

يَفْعَلُ

فَعَلَ

 I

يُفَعَّلُ

فُعِّلَ

يَفَعِّلُ

فَعَّلَ

II

يُفَاعَلُ

فُوْعِلَ

يُفَاعِلُ

فَاعَلَ

III

يُفْعَلُ

أُفْعِلَ

يُفْعِلُ

أَفْعَلَ

IV

يُتَفَعَّلُ

تُفُعِّلَ

يَتَفَعَّلُ

تَفَعَّلَ

V

يُتَفَاعَلُ

تُفُوعِلَ

يَتَفَاعَلُ

تَفَاعَلَ

VI

يُنْفَعَلُ

أُنْفُعِلَ

يَنْفَعِلُ

إِنْفَعَلَ

VII

يُفْتَعَلُ

أُفْتُعِلَ

يُفْتَعِلُ

إِفْتَعَلَ

VIII

يُفَعَّلُ

أُفْعِلَّ

يَفْعَلُّ

إِفْعَلَّ

IX

يُسْتَفْعَلُ

أُسْتُفْعِلَ

يَسْتَفْعِلُ

إِسْتَفْعَلَ

X

 

مصدر

فعل

النهي

فعل

الأمر

 

فَعْلٌ

لاَتَفْعَلْ

إِِفْعَلْ

 I

تَفْعِيْلٌ

لاَتُفَعِّلْ

فَعِّلْ

II

مُفَاعَلَةٌ

لاَتُفَاعِلْ

فَاعِلْ

III

إِفْعَالٌ

لاَتُفْعِلْ

أَفْعِلْ

IV

تَفَعُّلٌ

لاَتَتَفَعَّلْ

تَفَعَّلْ

V

تَفَاعُلٌ

لاَتَتَفَاعَلْ

تَفَاعَلْ

VI

إِنْفِعَالٌ

لاَتَنْفَعِلْ

إِنْفَعِلْ

VII

إِفْتِعَالٌ

لاَتَفْتَعِلْ

إِفْتَعِلْ

VIII

إِفْعِلاَلٌ

 

 

IX

إِسْتِفْعَالٌ

لاَتَسْتَفْعِلْ

إِسْتَفْعِلْ

X

 

إسم

الألة

إسم

المكن

الزمان

إسم

المفعول

إسم

الفاعل

 

مِفْعَلٌ

مَفْعَلٌ

مَفْعُولٌ

فَاعِلٌ

I

 

مُفَعَّلٌ

مُفَعَّلٌ

مُفَعِّلٌ

II

 

مُفَاعَلٌ

مُفَاعَلٌ

مُفَاعِلٌ

III

 

مُفَعَلٌ

مُفْعَلٌ

مُفْعِلٌ

IV

 

مُتَفَعَّلٌ

مُتَفَعَّلٌ

مُتَفَعِّلٌ

V

 

مُتَفَاعَلٌ

مُتَفَاعَلٌ

مُتَفَاعِلٌ

VI

 

مُنْفَعَلٌ

مُنْفَعَلٌ

مُنْفَعِلٌ

VII

 

مُفْتَعَلٌ

مُفْتَعَلٌ

مُفْتَعِلٌ

VIII

 

مُفْعَلٌ

مُفْعَلٌ

مُفْعِلٌ

IX

 

مُسْتَفْعَلٌ

مُسْتَفْعَلٌ

مُسْتَفْعِلٌ

X

 

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4. ANSWERING CRITIQUES ON ISLAM

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5. DAKWAH BIL HIKMAH

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6. REVERTER STORY

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7. QURANIC MIRACLES 

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8. QUIZZES : GAMES

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quiz
Hadith : Conversation
Hadis : Perbualan

             

Translation                          

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More Hadith                      

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Conversation                    

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World Islamic History : 166 H
16/8/782 - 4/8/783 CE

                 

Other Events

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Islamic Lineage

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Islamic Timeline

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Athens : Greece
Southern Europe

            

Geography                   

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History                         

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Muslim                        

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Athens : Greece
Southern Europe

           

Geography                         

Total pop : 10.7 m   

Muslim pop : 140,000  (1.24% of pop)

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Greece

Greece

flag of GreeceNational anthem of Greece

OFFICIAL NAME
Ellinikí Dhimokratía (Hellenic Republic)

FORM OF GOVERNMENT
unitary multiparty republic with one legislative house (Hellenic Parliament [300])

HEAD OF STATE
President: Prokopis Pavlopoulos

HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
Prime Minister: Kyriakos Mitsotakis

CAPITAL
Athens

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
Greek

OFFICIAL RELIGION
See footnote 1.

MONETARY UNIT
euro (€)

CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATE
1 USD equals 0.898 euro

POPULATION
(2018 est.) 10,756,000

POPULATION RANK
(2018) 83

POPULATION PROJECTION 2030
9,874,000

TOTAL AREA (SQ MI)
50,949

TOTAL AREA (SQ KM)
131,957

DENSITY: PERSONS PER SQ MI
(2018) 211

DENSITY: PERSONS PER SQ KM
(2018) 81.5

URBAN-RURAL POPULATION
Urban: (2018) 79.1%
Rural: (2018) 20.9%

LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH
Male: (2017) 78 years
Female: (2017) 83.4 years

LITERACY: PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION AGE 15 AND OVER LITERATE
Male: (2015) 98.5%
Female: (2015) 97%

GNI (U.S.$ ’000,000)
(2017) 194,659

GNI PER CAPITA (U.S.$)
(2017) 18,090

  • 1The autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church has special recognition per the constitution.

Geography                         

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History                              

The Treaty of Lausanne

The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Greek: Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, romanizedI AntallagíOttoman Turkish: مبادله‎, romanized: Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at LausanneSwitzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey. It involved at least 1.6 million people (1,221,489 Greek Orthodox from Asia MinorEastern Thrace, the Pontic Alps and the Caucasus, and 355,000-400,000 Muslims from Greece),[1]most of whom were forcibly made refugees and de jure denaturalized from their homelands.

The population exchange was envisioned by the new state of Turkey as a way to formalize, and make permanent the flight of its native Greek Orthodox peoples following their genocide (1914–1922), while initiating a new exodus of a smaller number (400,000) of Muslims from Greece as a way to provide settlers for the now depopulated Greek Orthodox villages of Turkey; Greece meanwhile saw it as a way to provide propertyless Greek Orthodox refugees from Turkey with lands of expelled Muslims.[2]

This major compulsory population exchange, or agreed mutual expulsion, was based not on language or ethnicity, but upon religious identity, and involved nearly all the indigenous Orthodox Christian citizens of Turkey (the Rûm "Roman/Byzantinemillet), including even Turkish-speaking Orthodox citizens, and most of the native Muslims of Greece, including even Greek-speaking Muslim citizens. Each group were citizens, and mostly native peoples, of the state seeking to expel them, and neither had representation in the state purporting to speak for them in the exchange treaty.

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The Muslim minority of Greece is the only explicitly recognized minority in Greece. It numbered 97,605 (0.91% of the population) according to the 1991 census, and unofficial estimates ranged up to 140,000 people or 1.24% of the total population, according to the United States Department of State.

The Muslims of Western Thrace were exempt from the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey when 1.5 million Anatolian Greeks or Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks were required to leave Turkey, and the 356,000 Muslims outside of Thrace were required to leave Greece, including the Muslim Greek Vallahades of western Greek Macedonia.

Consequently, most of the Muslim minority in Greece resides in the Greek region of Thrace, where they make up 28.88% of the population. Muslims form the largest group in the Rhodope regional unit (54.77%) and sizable percentages in the Xanthi (42.19%) and Evros regional units(6.65%).[4]

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History                              

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Muslim                             

Coming home after 130 years

By Jessica BatemanChania, Greece

  • 26 May 2018

Ahmed surrounded by members of his family

When a Syrian stonemason and his family were granted asylum in Greece last year they immediately made their way to the island of Crete - completing a journey begun by their great-grandparents 130 years ago.

Entering a small shop in Chania, on Crete's north-west coast, Ahmed began to introduce himself. The owner looked at him open-mouthed. He understood what Ahmed was saying, but some of the words he was using were unfamiliar and old-fashioned, and others he didn't understand at all. It was as though Ahmed had arrived not just from Syria, but from another age.

"He could not believe that someone was still speaking the old language today," says Ahmed.

Ahmed, 42, was speaking in a version of the Cretan dialect he had learned from his parents, growing up in a village in northern Syria in the 1970s and 80s. His parents had spent all their lives in Syria - but some members of the previous generation had been born in Crete and, living together as exiles, they had kept Cretan culture alive.

"We learned Arabic at school but always spoke Greek at home," says Ahmed. Children learned Greek dances and recited short Cretan poems known as mantiades. The parents passed on traditional Cretan recipes, such as fried snails, and intermarriage with the Syrian population was rare. Ahmed's wife, Yasmine, is also from a Cretan family.

Ahmed surrounded by members of his family

Ahmed's father's parents were forced to leave Crete in the 1890s as the Ottoman Empire weakened. The island had been part of the empire for two centuries and roughly a quarter of the population, including Ahmed's ancestors, had converted to Islam. But uprisings in the late 19th Century resulted in the expulsion of the Muslim population.

Some went to Turkey, Libya, Lebanon or Palestine, but Ahmed's family travelled to al-Hamidiyah, a village in Syria established for the refugees by Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II.

In later years its 10,000 inhabitants would keep in contact with modern Crete by watching Greek television via satellite and occasionally villagers would travel back to the island to work.

A postcard showing Muslims near Chania on the traditional Friday day of restImage copyrightALAMY
Image captionAn old postcard showing Muslims near Chania on a Friday, the traditional day of rest

"There was always a fragment of Crete in our hearts," says Ahmed.

"Everyone knew exactly which village everyone else's family came from. Our grandparents would say how beautiful Crete was and how they had everything they needed there.

"We always wanted to visit, but never had the chance."

Then Syria's civil war came, and left them little choice.

Ahmed's sisters, Amina, Faten and Latifa, and their families were the first to leave. Ahmed himself struggled to find work after suffering from a slipped disk and had difficulty scraping together the money to pay a people smuggler. But finally he, Yasmine and their four children - Bilal, 14, Reem, 12, Mustafa, nine, and four-year-old Fatima - set off for Greece in the spring of 2017.

View from the port of Chania, where Ahmed Tarzalakis and his family currently live.
Image captionView from the port of Chania, where Ahmed Tarzalakis and his family now live

The journey took three months and included a perilous boat trip from Turkey to the Greek island of Lesbos, on a dinghy that almost sank. When the family attended their first asylum application interview, Ahmed purposely placed his finger next to his distinctively Cretan surname - Tarzalakis - when asked to show his passport.

"He started shouting to his colleagues, 'Look, look, there's a Cretan here! Come and see!'" Ahmed says. "Everyone started crowding round out of curiosity."

Ahmed with his brother in law Ahmed Razak and nephews Khaled and Sultan - Ahmed tries to see all of his family members every day, if only for a short while
Image captionAhmed (right) tries to see all his family members once a day - including brother-in-law, Mahmoud Razak, and nephews Khaled and Sultan

Although many Greeks were aware that Cretan enclaves existed overseas, they were still intrigued by the Tarzalakis family dialect. Their accents are typically Cretan, but a lot of the vocabulary they learned in Syria is no longer used either in Crete or mainland Greece.

"But with a bit of patience, we can understand each other," says Ahmed.

And although they speak the language they have never learned to read or write it, so they still needed assistance to fill out forms.

Fatima, 4, is playing with a balloon at her new home in Chania. Fatima is Ahmed's youngest daughter. On the background, the cable TV is showing the news from a Syrian TV channel.
Image captionAhmed's youngest child, Fatima, plays with a balloon at their new home - while the television is tuned to a Syrian channel

After a month on Lesbos, Ahmed and his family were granted asylum in August 2017. They immediately caught a boat to Crete, where Ahmed's sisters, two cousins and their families, already living in the town of Chania, were waiting for them.

On arrival, Ahmed was immediately hospitalised, because of problems stemming from chronic epilepsy. Medical staff, amazed to hear the old dialect being spoken, called a reporter from the local paper.

"When I left hospital everyone in the town already knew me," says Ahmed, whose family was settled in an apartment near Chania's historic Venetian port.

View of the city of Chania in Crete where Ahmed Tarzalakis and his family are staying. At the centre lies Giali Tzamisi, an imposing mosque in the harbour, that used to be one of the earlier buildings of the Ottomans in Crete.
Image captionOne of three former mosques in Chania is right on the seafront - it is now used as an exhibition space

"People would stop me in the street to ask questions about Syria and the war.

"They view us as Cretans that have returned."

Ahmed then made a pilgrimage to his grandparents' native village, Skalani, just outside the capital, Heraklion.

Walking down its streets, gazing at the shady tavernas and small stone houses, he felt goosebumps all over his body. Although it was his first time visiting the village, he'd been hearing about it all his life.

"I couldn't find their exact houses, but the locals showed me the fields that the Muslim community would have worked on," he says.

Ahmed and his siblings have to tread carefully when looking into their family history. "I don't want the people living there to think I'm trying to claim the land back," says Ahmed's brother-in-law, Mustafa.

Image captionAhmed's sister Faten (right) and his wife Yasmine, go on a walk with Yasmine's younger sisters, and daughter Reem (aged 11), passing the Giali Tzamisi mosque

The family is learning to read and write modern Greek and the children are enrolled in school. "We're learning new phrases but we'll still hold our own language close, because it's part of who we are," says Ahmed.

Although Chania had no Muslim community for more than a century, things are now changing. As well as the 25 members of Ahmed's family, several hundred refugees from the Middle East have settled in the town over the past few years. The long-closed Ottoman mosque on the seafront is now used as an art gallery, so Muslims pray in rented rooms.

A recently-opened Arab supermarket sells imported goods, and Ahmed and his family enjoy eating a fusion of local and Syrian food, such as Greek salad, pitta bread, and hummus.

Reem,11 is walking early in the morning in order to reach the public school she and her siblings are attending for the past year in the city of Chania.
Image captionReem, 11, walks to school

So far, Crete is not quite the land of milk and honey described by Ahmed's grandparents. He's grateful for financial assistance from the EU-funded Estia (Home) programme, run by the UNHCR, but says it's not enough to bring up four children. The men in the family would like to set up a stonemasonry business and the women talk about doing bridal hairdressing, but that remains a goal for the future.

And although Ahmed appreciates the chance to experience life in his ancestors' homeland, the circumstances that led him here make the experience bittersweet.

"When you are forced to leave the place you were born, you lose a part of yourself," he says.

"If it was safe for us to return to al-Hamidiyah, then I would. But I would like to keep ties with Crete and visit regularly."

Photographs by Louiza Vradi

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World Islamic History : 165 H
26/8/781 - 15/8/782 CE

                  

Other Events                                   

xxx

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Islamic Lineage                               

xxx

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Islamic Timeline                             

xxx

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Hadith : Conversation
Hadis : Perbualan

            

Translation                   

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More Hadith                    

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Conversation                   

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